1. What is clipper language?

Clipper is an xBase compiler that implements a variant of the xBase computer programming language. It is used to create or extend software programs that originally operated primarily under MS-DOS. Although it is a powerful general-purpose programming language, it was primarily used to create database/business programs.

A programming language created in 1985.


xBase is the generic term for all programming languages derived from all the original dBase programming language and database formats.

2. History of Clipper

Clipper was created in 1985 as a compiler for dBase III. It was very popular as a database language at the time. Compiling dBase code changed it from…

Today, the modern world we live in must be done by technology because it has a lot of advantages, more than physical work or mental thinking. The computer plays a big role in supporting our daily life because of its accuracy, fast and reliability — many tasks can be done simultaneously with a computer. Computers do not just work by themselves, and so programming language had been invented to let the developers can build up software, and operating system will be able to use to control it, telling it what to do. Many different modern programming languages are using widely…

As a computer science college student, I’ve spent some time studying different programming languages. From modern, high development velocity scripting languages for a startup like JavaScript to machine learning undefeated king Python, from newborn Go to cooperate staple like Java, C++, or even C. However, recently, one programming language suddenly took my notice, one that I’ve never heard of before, that one is COBOL.


A Brief History

COBOL, which stands for “Common Business Oriented Language,” is a programming language designed in 1959 by a group of programmers for business use. …

Cg, the Beginning of HLSL

Graphic programmers release improved duplicatable software for technological advancement each year. The Cg programming language makes graphic images for video game platforms constructible. Cg gives developers control, allowing impressive speeds in real-time executions within the code. NVIDIA developed Cg with Microsoft Corporation’s High-Level Shading Language (HLSL) programming systems. HLSL works with OpenGL, DirectX, Windows, Linux, Macintosh OS X, and some gaming consoles. The term ‘Cg’ represents ‘C for graphics.’ C is a programming language created around the 1970s that paved the way for languages like Cg. Over time, more program developers learn the importance of Cg language comprehension. …

C is known as ANSI C or ISO C. If you are new to programming, you might wonder what a programming language is. A programming language is a language designed to convey ideas to a computer.


A programming language like C tells the computer what to do. In this research paper, we will have a quick overview of C, followed by its history. Then we will go over the benefits and downsides of programming in C. Followed by the popularity of C, which uses C today, why you should learn C. …

Distributed Application Specification Language (DASL) is a strongly typed programming language developed by Sun Microsystems Laboratories between 1999 and 2003. The language was a part of the Ace Project, with their main goal of enabling the rapid development of websites and web-based applications.

Being a domain-specific language, DASL defines an application as a domain model with one or more logical presentation models, which can generate a graphical user interface meaning that the user interface can interact with electronic devices from icons and audio indicators as the input-type.

DASL is mostly used to create business applications since it is aimed to…

AIMMS stands for Advanced Interactive Multidimensional Modeling System. To summarize, AIMMS specializes in prescriptive analytics, where users find the best course of action by analyzing data.

The founder of AIMMS was a mathematician named Johannes Bisschop. In 1974, Bisschop had received his Ph.D. in Mathematical Sciences in the United States and then moved back to The Netherlands. There, he worked as an Applied Mathematics professor while managing a company know as Paragon Decision Technology B.V or AIMMS B.V.

It was not until 1989 that Bisschop created the first version of AIMMS. As a mathematician, Bisschop originally introduced AIMMS as a…

A waste or not?

Though the cryptid Bloop has never been seen, one could argue that BlooP the language cannot be seen too. But BlooP is an incredibly simple example of what a programming language can be. Not necessarily simple, meaning it’s easy to learn, but simple, meaning it can’t really be used for anything useful. It’s so simple that it doesn’t have the capability to subtract numbers without typing out a large set of instructions. Even then, negative numbers don’t even exist to BlooP.


It was initially created by a man named Douglas Richard Hofstadter in 1979 to make…

BIG Data — Apache Pig Latin

In recent years, utilizing big data has become an inseparable part of software development. Many companies store their customers’ data and use it to improve their service.

Apache Hadoop is one of the essential software that manages data processing and storage for big data applications. Apache Pig Latin is a high-level language for expressing data analysis programs and a related project of Apache Hadoop.


Apache Pig Latin is a language that is executed over Apache Hadoop. Apache Hadoop is designed to solve the problem of scaling up databases with distributed processing. Also, it was…

The history of Arc begins with the programming language of Lisp. Lisp was made in the 1950s by John McCarthy while at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT). “As part of an artificial intelligence project, he needed a programming language that could process lists of data. Sentences structured formally would represent information about the world. The computer would navigate and process lists of sentences to mimic human reasoning, for example, the ability to answer a question by comparing possible sentences organized into lists.” This project helped birth the new language of Lisp. …

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